Open Access Review Article

Role of Dietary Calcium in Hypertension

Mariam Omar, Faiza Nouh, Manal Younis, Moftah Younis, Nesma Nabil, Sara Saleh, Sahar Ibraik, Areej Ali

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2019/46453

Calcium level is an importance factor for control hypertension.  This review tries to shade the light on the role of calcium in controlling blood pressure. Searching on the internet using the Google search engine was the main source of data as well as books was the method to explore this interaction. Calcium from supplementation and diets was the main focus of this paper.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Potentials of Ethanolic Extract of Solanum melongena Linn Fruit on Monosodium Glutamate- Intoxicated Rats' and Liver Section Histology

Uchendu O. Mbah, Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu, Ngozi K. Achi, Ijere D. Nwanne, Obinna Jeremiah

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2019/45935

This study evaluated the hepatoprotective potentials of ethanolic extract of Solanum melongena Linn fruit on monosodium glutamate-intoxicated rats and liver section histology using standard protocols. Twenty four Wistar rats that weighed 105.00 ± 7.00 g were divided into 6 groups of 4 each. The six groups were thus fed: Group 1 (control, feed and distilled water only), Group 2 (8000 mg/kg body weight MSG), Group 3 (300 mg/kg body weight the sample extract), Group 4 (8000 mg/kg body weight MSG+ 100 mg/kg body weight the sample extract), Group 5 (8000 mg/kg body weight MSG+ 300 mg/kg body weight the sample extract) and Group 6 (8000 mg/kg body weight MSG+ 500 mg/kg body weight the sample extract) daily for 14 days. The MSG only fed group showed a significant (P=0.05) increase in the activities of serum alanine aminotransferases (ALT), aspartate aminotransferases (AST), alkaline phosphatases (ALP) and total bilirubin compared to the control group. MSG and ethanolic extract of Solanum melongena Linn fruit co-treated groups at different concentration were significantly (P=.05) reduced to become comparable to the control group. The concentration of serum albumin and total protein were significantly (P=.05) reduced for group 2 compared to group 1. The co-administration of MSG and ethanolic extract of Solanum melongena Linn fruit resulted to a significant (P =0.05) increase notably at 500 mg/kg body weight sample extract and the same was observed for the histology. This suggests the improved synthetic function of the liver. MSG at a high concentration (8000 mg/kg body weight) adversely affected the rats liver biofunction and the hepatoprotective potentials of ethanol extract of Solanum melongena Linn fruit was notably at 500 mg/kg of body weight in rats. However, further studies in this direction are warranted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Leucocyte Profile of Adult Nigerians as Indicator of Severity Level of Acute Musculoskeletal Trauma

K. E. Asemota, E. N. Ekene, S. E. Ehebha, G. T. Olowe

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2019/v9i130093

Leucocytosis, marked increase in the number of white blood cells (WBC) is a known physiological response to trauma. In recent times, several studies have asserted the absence of this response in Africans. In view of this, current study investigated the existence of, and prognostic implications of post-traumatic leucocytosis amongst adult Nigerians with acute musculoskeletal (MSK) trauma. Two hundred and twenty three (223) adult male and females (MSK traumatized) and fifty apparently healthy volunteers (adults) were ethically recruited from the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu, regional centre for trauma, orthopaedic, burns and plastic surgery in south-east Nigeria. Using the Leishman’s stained blood smear technique, leucocyte profiles [Neutrophil, Lymphocytes, Basophils, Eosinophils and Monocyte counts] were obtained for each participant. In all case, Age, Gender and duration of hospitalization were also obtained. Following careful analysis, study found, using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), a statistically significant increase (p < .05) in acutely traumatized subjects; with adults of ages 20 to 49 years constituting the majority (70%). A statistically significant lymphopenia was also observed in test population, with Pearson Product Moment Correlation proving positive for higher levels of WBC counts. A negative correlation was also seen for Neutrophils and lymphocyte counts, implicating the Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Stress Factor (NLSF). We recommend the exploration of the NLSF for prognosis of Leucocytosis in Africans.

Open Access Case Report

Overt Clinical Hypereosinophilia in T- cell Non Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Case Report

Chinmayee Agrawal, Kunal Das, Sanjiv Kumar Verma, Nadia Shirazi, Mansi Kala

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2019/45392

The study describes a case of hyper-eosinophilia who was presented with overt manifestation of high eosinophil and detected to have underlying non Hodgkin lymphoma. The male patient was presented with profound weakness and multiple non itchy nodular skin lesion for 2 weeks. Biopsy from skin nodule showed deposits of abnormal lymphocytes. Lymph node biopsy showed effacement with mono nuclear abnormal cells which showed positivity for CD4 and 5, negative for cytokeratin and CD20. He was diagnosed to have T-NHL. [Fig. 3a, Fig. 3b] Bone marrow showed involvement by NHL cells. His diplopia and headache responded to intra-thecal methotrexate and possibly CNS involvement of disease was considered. Family opted out of allopathic treatment plan due to clinical progression. He later died of disease progression. This case illustrates the rare and interesting association of overt clinical hyper-eosinophilia and T NHL. The study suggests that cases with hyper eosinophilia should be evaluated thoroughly for T cell disease.

Open Access Case Study

Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anaemia Type II: A Rare Blood Disorder in a Nigerian Child

Kaladada I. Korubo, Boma A. West

International Blood Research & Reviews, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IBRR/2019/46976

The congenital dyserythropoietic anaemias (CDA) are a rare group of inherited haematological disorders characterized by congenital anaemia, ineffective erythropoiesis in the bone marrow and dysplasia in developing erythroblasts. In Africa where sickle cell anaemia and thalassaemias are common, diagnosis of CDA may be missed. We report a six year old girl who presented in anaemic heart failure with a haemoglobin concentration of 5.1g/dL and a history of recurrent anaemia of two years duration which required multiple blood transfusions. Peripheral blood film features showed red cell anisopoikilocytosis with occasional nucleated red cells- some of which were multinucleated. Her haemoglobin genotype was AA. Bone marrow aspiration revealed a markedly hypercellular marrow with severe erythroid hyperplasia and dyserythropoiesis. Her serum ferritin was also markedly elevated. Based on the clinical, laboratory and characteristic bone marrow findings, a diagnosis of CDA type II was made. She was transfused and placed on iron chelation therapy. Her parents were counseled on treatment options and she is currently on follow up.